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Peter Haslinger.

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Karl Christian Lammers. Olivier Wieviorka. Hagen Fleischer. In order to cater for a diverse international audience, the edition will be published in hybrid form. This combines the advantages of a multiple-volume, printed publication in English with a digital project portal which presents the sources both in English and the original languages.

The sources are transcribed, annotated and translated according to project-specific guidelines which ensure the highest scholarly standards. The digital edition will include a number of facsimiles, in order to convey the visual and material qualities of selected sources, and advanced interactive search functions. The project portal will also offer additional, specifically developed features for teaching purposes.

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The following sources offer an insight into the diverse genres, languages and visual qualities of the documents presented in the edition Societies under German Occupation — Experiences and Everyday Life in World War II. A number of facsimiles like these will be included in the digital edition. Transcriptions of the sources selected for the edition are produced on the basis of the digital copies obtained from the archives; the resulting transcriptions are then annotated and translated with reference to the original facsimiles. Andersons, head of the Latvian agriculture administration, [].

Writing of the command of Kaunas economy of August 2, to the commissar of the Kaunas city circuit regarding setting of ration to the civilians. Report of the arrest on the Belgrade railway station of the peasant and his customer during the illegal sale of two piglets. Belgrade, 27 November The instruction of department of prices in the administration of Generalgouvernement about the fight with black market.

Palgrave Macmillan. Topic Areas. Sample Sources. What we say about the project. Darius Staliunas Supervisor for Lithuania. Dirk Luyten Supervisor for Belgium. Jerzy Kochanowski Supervisor for Poland.

Book Review: Hunger in Holland. Life during the Nazi Occupation | German History | Oxford Academic

Project Leaders. More Information. As general editors they are joined by. Stefan Martens. Irina Scherbakova. Agnes Laba. Project Coordinator. Francis Ipgrave. Managing Editor. The Great Chinese Famine, from to , was caused by a combination of leader Mao Zedong's agricultural policies during the Great Leap Forward, widespread mismanagement and severe weather.

Tens of millions of people died. Studies of Chinese born during this period link prenatal famine exposure to an increased risk of schizophrenia — a link also found in the Dutch Hongerwinter cohort. There are obvious ethical issues and long time spans involved that make recreating the circumstances of famine impossible. Scientists have discovered that certain genes of children conceived during a prolonged period of starvation receive special epigenetic 'tags' through a process called methylation — a gene modification that typically deactivates a gene, but does not alter the genetic code.

Methylation is part of normal development, but patterns vary across individuals. Nearly six decades after the famine, Lumey and colleagues isolated DNA from Hongerwinter individuals. They found a below-average methylation of the insulin-like growth factor II gene IGF2 , which codes for a growth hormone critical to gestation.

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  6. Decreasing the methylation of IGF2 should increase the expression of the hormone. In contrast, later studies in this cohort found increased methylation of five other genes, among them genes associated with cholesterol transport and ageing, as well as the gene that produces IL, which has been linked with schizophrenia. The mechanisms of these epigenetic changes and whether they have a bearing on disease remain unclear.

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    Lumey hopes to study the children of the 'tagged' individuals to see if these changes persist into the next generation. Epigenetic information is almost fully reset in very early development, so the outcome, he says, is difficult to predict. Lumey is now looking to high-throughput sequencing methods to measure genome-wide DNA methylation. If these modifications are indeed widespread throughout the genome, the cumulative effect of famine-induced epigenetic alterations might play a substantial role in disease progression.

    Other research has shown that less-extreme diets also affect methylation patterns and disease susceptibility. For example, folic acid is an important supplement for pregnant women to help prevent neural tube defects in developing embryos.

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    It has been shown to increase the methylation of IGF2 , hinting that it works through an epigenetic mechanism. Nevertheless, studying such catastrophes provides researchers with valuable information that is not otherwise available, revealing that the aftermath of famine and prenatal malnutrition lasts long after help arrives with life-saving food.

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    Reprints and Permissions. Ahmed, F. Epigenetics: Tales of adversity. Nature , S20 doi Download citation. BioEssays Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Worm By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate. Advanced search.